After adjustment for measures of health seeking behaviour, however, no association remained (adjusted hazard ratio 1.02, 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 1.09). Moreover pandora necklaces, no association was found between vasectomy and high grade prostate cancer (adjusted odds ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 1.66), advanced stage prostate cancer (adjusted odds ratio 1.04, 0.81 to 1.34), or mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.06, 0.60 to 1.85).ConclusionThe findings do not support an independent association between vasectomy and prostate cancer.IntroductionVasectomy is a minor outpatient procedure with few short term complications.1 2 It is effective in most men and one of the most reliable and cost effective long term methods of contraception.3 4 An estimated 33 million women worldwide rely on their partner’s vasectomy for contraception.5Several studies have explored the possible association between vasectomy and prostate cancer https://www.jewelrym98n54.top/, with conflicting results.6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Potential biological mechanisms supporting an association between vasectomy and incident prostate cancer include increases in androgen levels, which are hypothesised to increase the risk of prostate cancer,31 and impaired secretory function of the prostate, which might prolong exposure of the prostate to carcinogenic factors.11 Although some studies have shown an increase in serum dihydrotestosterone and testosterone after vasectomy,32 33 34 others have found no statistically significant change in androgen levels.35 36 Similarly, findings on the association between frequency of ejaculation and risk of prostate cancer are conflicting.37 38 Thus the possible biological relation, if any, between vasectomy and prostate cancer remains unclear.Many of the studies that found an association between vasectomy and prostate cancer were limited by sample size and the potential for selection, recall, and detection biases. Given the frequency of vasectomy, even a small increased risk of prostate cancer would constitute a major public health problem.
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